A plat of survey is used to retrace an existing parcelâ€™s boundary lines according to that parcelâ€™s recorded deed and to locate improvements on that parcel. Sometimes land owners, banks and title companies use this survey to verify that there are no encroachments, occupation or deed line discrepancies associated with the property.
A certified survey map is a minor subdivision of a parcel of land into no more than four lots. This may vary depending on the local municipality or county ordinance. Certified survey maps are used to create new parcels, combine contiguous parcels, or alter lot lines. Typically certified survey maps will be reviewed by the local municipality and/or County in which the lots are created. They are also used for dedicating public roadways. Certified survey maps are recorded at the County Register of Deeds office.
A subdivision allows the creation of any number of lots. The primary use of subdivision is for residential, commercial or industrial developments. Subdivisions are regulated by State Statutes and reviewed by state and local governmental agencies. The first step is a design concept which centers on the developers market desires and parameters dictated by local ordinances and review. The concept design is followed by the preliminary and final plats of the subdivision. The preliminary and final plats require review and approval by various local and state units of government. Following the approval processes the Final Plat with all the detailed dimensional information is recorded at the Register of Deeds. The subdivision plat contains not only the lots, but road dedications, various types of easements, building setbacks, flood plain information and other pertinent data to the buyer.
This plat is used where there are multiple units on a single parcel of land and there will be separate ownership of each unit. Areas are designated for the use by a unit called limited common elements and area designated for the use of the entire association called common elements. This map is recorded in the Register of Deeds along with other required documents.
This type of survey is normally used by Title Insurance and Mortgage Companies where they instruct the surveyor to perform specific survey and mapping requirements such as locating the legal boundary lines and any improvements, easements, sewer, water, electric, telephone and floodplain lines and any encroachments that affect the property so the survey exception can be removed by the title company. ALTA/ACSM surveys are typically used on multifamily, commercial or industrial pieces of property and occasionally on large vacant tracts and residential property.
When a parcel of land is mapped in the floodplain by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), flood insurance is required if there is a federally insured mortgage on the property. There can be significant discrepancies between mapped floodplain limits and floodplain limits based on ground actual elevations. In order to map a property out of the floodplain the surveyor will collect the actual property elevations, including the lowest elevation within a building such as its basement or crawl space and draft a map. The map, along with additional information may be submitted for review to FEMA for a map change. The requirement for flood insurance can be released in many cases.
Floodplain surveys are also used in floodplain areas where new construction is required to be built two feet above the 100-Year Flood Elevation. The surveyor will set a reference point (benchmark) for the construction phase.
For properties that remain in the floodplain the insurance company needs certain elevation data in order to rate the insurance. The surveyor will collect the necessary elevation data and photographs and then complete the elevation certificate.
A topographic survey is a three dimensional survey map showing spot elevations and/or contours, existing structures, utility locations, fence lines, waterways, etc. It is primarily used for the design of subdivisions, new construction, parking areas and drainage plans.
This is a minor site plan typically used for the construction of new homes or buildings. A topography survey is completed on the property and then a drawing is made showing this data along with the location and elevation of the building, impervious areas such as driveways and walkways, and other proposed improvements.